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Will Our Child Have to Deal With Multiple Trusts After Our Deaths?

When a married couple creates an estate plan using a revocable living trust, they have the option of creating a single joint trust or two separate individual trusts. There are pros and cons to each, but some couples choose to create separate trusts because of:

  • the desire to leave property to different beneficiaries or for greater asset protection from the financial risks of one spouse

  • the ability to keep inherited or individually owned property separate from jointly acquired property, or

  • the need for greater flexibility or more certainty concerning tax planning after the first spouse's death

Whatever the reasons for separate trusts, when the ultimate beneficiary is the spouse's child(ren), the question is whether the beneficiary of these separate trusts will always have multiple trusts to deal with. Keeping track of the property owned and invested by each trust and filing tax returns for numerous trusts can be an administrative headache. The good news is that if multiple trusts have similar terms and neither the trust agreement nor state law prohibit the consolidation of the trusts, they can usually be combined into one.

Under section 417 of the Uniform Trust Code (UTC), which has been adopted (either completely or in some form) in thirty-five states and the District of Columbia as of the date of this writing, a trustee, after giving notice to the qualified beneficiaries, may combine two or more trusts into a single trust, "if the result does not impair rights of any beneficiary or adversely affect achievement of the purposes of the trust." Keep in mind that this provision of law would be overruled by any contrary provision in the trust agreement, so it is essential to know and understand what the trust agreement provides.

While the UTC doesn't require the trust terms be identical to be combined, the more the terms governing the distribution of trust property of the trusts to be combined vary, the more likely it is that the rights of a beneficiary would be impaired as a result of the combination. Therefore, it would be less likely that the combination would be approved. Where the trusts to be combined are the separate trusts of a married couple, which likely have identical or very similar provisions, there should be little to no impediment to combining trusts.

If the trusts have identical provisions, it could be argued that the trustee is responsible for combining the trusts to provide for a more efficient and economical trust administration. Combining trusts could result in reduced trustee fees, filing one trust tax return instead of two or more, and more effective investing opportunities.

The UTC doesn't require a trustee to obtain consent of the beneficiaries or a court before combining multiple trusts. However, it requires that the trustee give the beneficiaries notice before doing so. And although the law may not require the consent of either the beneficiaries or a court, if the terms of the trusts to be combined vary significantly, a prudent trustee would seek the consent of the beneficiaries or the court before combining the trusts.

For married couples considering or choosing separate trusts as part of their estate plan, the good news is that their child does not always have to handle multiple trusts after their death. Rather, if the terms of the trusts or state law permit the combination of trusts, the trustee may do so, thus taking advantage of certain economies in trust administration. If you have questions about whether your separate trusts can be combined into one for your beneficiaries' benefit, please call Santaella Legal Group, serving all of California, at (925) 831-4840.

Keep reading:

Receiving an Inheritance? Here Are Things to Consider

You Can Parent Beyond the Grave: Common Trusts and How to Use Them

Motivate Your Heirs With an Incentive Trust

How to Protect Your Child's Inheritance From Their Spouse

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